Interview questions

           
                                                   SERIALIZATION
Serialization is a mechanism by which you can save or transfer the state of an object by converting it to a byte stream. This can be done in java by implementing Serialiazable interface. Serializable is defined as a marker interface which needs to be implemented for transferring an object over a network or persistence of its state to a file. Since its a marker interface, it does not contain any methods. Implementation of this interface enables the conversion of object into byte stream and thus can be transferred. The object conversion is done by the JVM using its default serialization mechanism.
Serialization is required for a variety of reasons. It is required to send across the state of an object over a network by means of a socket. One can also store an object’s state in a file. Additionally, manipulation of the state of an object as streams of bytes is required. The core of Java Serialization is the Serializable interface. When Serializable interface is implemented by your class it provides an indication to the compiler that java Serialization mechanism needs to be used to serialize the object.
This is one of top serialization questions that is asked in many big companies to test your in-depth understanding of serialization. Serializable is a marker interface therefore you are not forced to implement any methods, however Externalizable contains two methods readExternal() and writeExternal() which must be implemented. Serializable interface provides a inbuilt serialization mechanism to you which can be in-efficient at times. However Externilizable interface is designed to give you greater control over the serialization mechanism. The two methods provide you immense opportunity to enhance the performance of specific object serialization based on application needs. Serializable interface provides a default serialization mechanism, on the other hand, Externalizable interface instead of relying on default Java Serialization provides flexibility to control this mechanism. One can drastically improve the application performance by implementing the Externalizable interface correctly. However there is also a chance that you may not write the best implementation, so if you are not really sure about the best way to serialize, I would suggest your stick to the default implementation using Serializable interface.
Most of the times when you want to do a selective attribute serialization you can use Serializable interface with transient modifier for variables not to be serialized. However, use of Externalizable interface can be really effective in cases when you have to serialize only some dynamically selected attributes of a large object. Lets take an example, Some times when you have a big Java object with hundreds of attributes and you want to serialize only a dozen dynamically selected attributes to keep the state of the object you should use Externalizable interface writeExternal method to selectively serialize the chosen attributes. In case you have small objects and you know that most or all attributes are required to be serialized then you should be fine with using Serializable interface and use of transient variable as appropriate.
The default Java Serialization mechanism is really useful, however it can have a really bad performance based on your application and business requirements. The serialization process performance heavily depends on the number and size of attributes you are going to serialize for an object. Below are some tips you can use for speeding up the marshaling and un-marshaling of objects during Java serialization process.
  • Mark the unwanted or non Serializable attributes as transient. This is a straight forward benefit since your attributes for serialization are clearly marked and can be easily achieved using Serialzable interface itself.
  • Save only the state of the object, not the derived attributes. Some times we keep the derived attributes as part of the object however serializing them can be costly. Therefore consider calcualting them during de-serialization process.
  • Serialize attributes only with NON-default values. For examples, serializing a int variable with value zero is just going to take extra space however, choosing not to serialize it would save you a lot of performance. This approach can avoid some types of attributes taking unwanted space. This will require use of Externalizable interface since attribute serialization is determined at runtime based on the value of each attribute.
  • Use Externalizable interface and implement the readExternal and writeExternal methods to dynamically identify the attributes to be serialized. Some times there can be a custom logic used for serialization of various attributes.
The serialVersionUID represents your class version, and you should change it if the current version of your class is not backwards compatible with its earlier versions. This is extract from Java API Documentation
The serialization runtime associates with each serializable class a version number, called a serialVersionUID, which is used during deserialization to verify that the sender and receiver of a serialized object have loaded classes for that object that are compatible with respect to serialization.
Most of the times, we probably do not use serialization directly. In such cases, I would suggest to generate a default serializable uid by clicking the quick fix option in eclipse.

If you don't define serialVersionUID in your serilizable class, Java compiler will make one by creating a hash code using most of your class attributes and features. When an object gets serialized, this hash code is stamped on the object which is known as the SerialVersionUID of that object. This ID is required for the version control of an object. SerialVersionUID can be specified in the class file also. In case, this ID is not specified by you, then Java compiler will regenerate a SerialVersionUID based on updated class and it will not be possible for the already serialized class to recover when a class field is added or modified. Its recommended that you always declare a serialVersionUID in your Serializable classes.
Declaring an explicit serialVersionUID field in your classes saves some CPU time only the first time the JVM process serializes a given Class. However the gain is not significant, In case when you have not declared the serialVersionUID its value is computed by JVM once and subsequently kept in a soft cache for future use.
In case, Serialization is not used, Java objects can be serialized by many ways, some of the popular methods are listed below:
  • Saving object state to database, this is most common technique used by most applications. You can use ORM tools (e.g. hibernate) to save the objects in a database and read them from the database.
  • Xml based data transfer is another popular mechanism, and a lot of XML based web services use this mechanism to transfer data over network. Also a lot of tools save XML files to persist data/configurations.
  • JSON Data Transfer - is recently popular data transfer format. A lot of web services are being developed in JSON due to its small footprint and inherent integration with web browser due to JavaScript format.


The transient keyword in Java is used to indicate that a field should not be serialized. Once the process of de-serialization is carried out, the transient variables do not undergo a change and retain their default value. Marking unwanted fields as transient can help you boost the serialization performance. Below is a simple example where you can see the use of transient keyword.
  1. class MyVideo implements Serializable   
  2. {   
  3.     private Video video;   
  4.     private transient Image thumbnailVideo;   
  5.   
  6.     private void generateThumbnail()   
  7.     {   
  8.         // Generate thumbnail.   
  9.     }   
  10.   
  11.     private void readObject(ObjectInputStream inputStream)   
  12.             throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException   
  13.     {   
  14.         inputStream.defaultReadObject();   
  15.         generateThumbnail();   
  16.     }       
  17. }  
class MyVideo implements Serializable
{
    private Video video;
    private transient Image thumbnailVideo;

    private void generateThumbnail()
    {
        // Generate thumbnail.
    }

    private void readObject(ObjectInputStream inputStream)
            throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
    {
        inputStream.defaultReadObject();
        generateThumbnail();
    }   
}
The Java variables declared as static are not considered part of the state of an object since they are shared by all instances of that class. Saving static variables with each serialized object would have following problems
  • It will make redundant copy of same variable in multiple objects which makes it in-efficient.
  • The static variable can be modified by any object and a serialized copy would be stale or not in sync with current value.
All standard implementations of collections List, Set and Map interface already implement java.io.Serializable. All the commonly used collection classes like java.util.ArrayList, java.util.Vector, java.util.Hashmap, java.util.Hashtable, java.util.HashSet, java.util.TreeSet do implement Serializable. This means you do not really need to write anything specific to serialize collection objects. However you should keep following things in mind before you serialize a collection object - Make sure all the objects added in collection are Serializable. - Serializing the collection can be costly therefore make sure you serialize only required data isntead of serializing the whole collection. - In case you are using a custom implementation of Collection interface then you may need to implement serialization for it.
Yes, the serialization process can be customized. When an object is serialized, objectOutputStream.writeObject (to save this object) is invoked and when an object is read, ObjectInputStream.readObject () is invoked. What most people do not know is that Java Virtual Machine provides you with an option to define these methods as per your needs. Once this is done, these two methods will be invoked by the JVM instead of the application of the default serialization process. Classes that require special handling during the serialization and deserialization process must implement special methods with these exact signatures:
  1. private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream out)   
  2.      throws IOException   
  3.  private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream in)   
  4.      throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException;   
  5.  private void readObjectNoData()    
  6.      throws ObjectStreamException;  
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream out)
     throws IOException
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream in)
     throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException;
private void readObjectNoData()
     throws ObjectStreamException;
In Java, if the super class of a class is implementing Serializable interface, it means that it is already serializable. Since, an interface cannot be unimplemented, it is not possible to make a class non-serializable. However, the serialization of a new class can be avoided. For this, writeObject () and readObject() methods should be implemented in your class so that a Not Serializable Exception can be thrown by these methods. And, this can be done by customizing the Java Serialization process. Below the code that demonstrates it
  1. class MySubClass extends SomeSerializableSuperClass {   
  2. private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream out)   
  3.      throws IOException {   
  4.  throw new NotSerializableException(“Can not serialize this class”);   
  5. }   
  6.  private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream in)   
  7.      throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {   
  8.  throw new NotSerializableException(“Can not serialize this class”);   
  9. }   
  10.  private void readObjectNoData()    
  11.      throws ObjectStreamException; {   
  12.  throw new NotSerializableException(“Can not serialize this class”);   
  13. }   
  14. }  
class MySubClass extends SomeSerializableSuperClass {
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream out)
    throws IOException {
throw new NotSerializableException(“Can not serialize this class”);
}
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream in)
     throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
throw new NotSerializableException(“Can not serialize this class”);
}
private void readObjectNoData()
     throws ObjectStreamException; {
throw new NotSerializableException(“Can not serialize this class”);
}
}
This is one of a difficult and tricky questions and answering this correctly would mean you are an expert in Java Serialization concept. In an already serialized object, the most challenging task is to change the structure of a class when a new field is added or removed. As per the specifications of Java Serialization, addition of any method or field is considered to be a compatible change whereas changing of class hierarchy or non-implementation of Serializable interface is considered to be a non-compatible change. You can go through the Java serialization specification for the extensive list of compatible and non-compatible changes. If a serialized object need to be compatible with an older version, it is necessary that the newer version follows some rules for compatible and incompatible changes. A compatible change to the implementing class is one that can be applied to a new version of the class, which still keeps the object stream compatible with older version of same class. Some Simple Examples of compatible changes are:
  • Addition of a new field or class will not affect serialization, since any new data in the stream is simply ignored by older versions. the newly added field will be set to its default values when the object of an older version of the class is un marshaled.
  • The access modifiers change (like private, public, protected or default) is compatible since they are not reflected in the serialized object stream.
  • Changing a transient field to a non-transient field is compatible change since it is similar to adding a field.
  • Changing a static field to a non-static field is compatible change since it is also similar to adding a field.


Some Simple Examples of incompatible changes are:
  • Changing implementation from Serializable to Externalizable interface can not be done since this will result in the creation of an incompatible object stream.
  • Deleting a existing Serializable fields will cause a problem.
  • Changing a non-transient field to a transient field is incompatible change since it is similar to deleting a field.
  • Changing a non-static field to a static field is incompatible change since it is also similar to deleting a field.
  • Changing the type of a attribute within a class would be incompatible, since this would cause a failure when attempting to read and convert the original field into the new field.
  • Changing the package of class is incompatible. Since the fully-qualified class name is written as part of the object byte stream.
NoClassDefFoundError and ClassNotFoundException are very closely related and often confused with each other by many developers. Below is the description of each from the Java API Specifications
ClassNotFoundException

Thrown when an application tries to load in a class through its string name using:
·         The forName method in class Class.
·         The findSystemClass method in class ClassLoader.
·         The loadClass method in class ClassLoader.
but the definition of the class with the specified name could not be found due to following reasons
·         The specified name class does not exist.
·         The specified name class is not in the classpath
·         The specified name class is not visible to the classloader.
NoClassDefFoundError
Thrown if the Java Virtual Machine or a ClassLoader instance tries to load in the definition of a class (as part of a normal method call or as part of creating a new instance using the new expression) and no definition of the class could be found.

The searched-for class definition existed when the currently executing class was compiled, but the definition can no longer be found.

Key Differences
  • The NoClassDefFoundError is thrown when the source was successfully compiled, but during runtime, the required class files were not found. This may be a case when some dependency jar files were not included or not in classpath.

    A ClassNotFoundException is thrown when the reported class is not found by the ClassLoader or not visible to the Classloader.
  • Another important distinction between these two is, NoClassDefFoundError is a sub class of java.lang.Error and the ClassNotFoundException is a subclass of java.lang.Exception.
  • NoClassDefFoundError is a critical error for JVM since its having problems finding a class it expected to find.

    On the other hand, the ClassNotFoundException is an Exception. Use of reflection api can be error-prone and there is no compile-time check to validate reflection call is loading right classes, so there can be situations when some classes may not be found.
Some scenario when ClassNotFoundException may occur
Scenario 1 (Use of reflection) - You will see ClassNotFoundException when you are using reflection to load classes at runtime, and the class you are trying to load does not exist or not in classpath.
Scenario 2 (Multiple Classloaders being used) - You will see ClassNotFoundException when a class is being loaded from another class which was already loaded in a parent classloader and the class from the child classloader is not visible.

                                             GARBAGE COLLECTION
How Garbage Collection works in Java

1) objects are created on heap in Java  irrespective of there scope e.g. local or member variable. while its worth noting that class variables or static members are created in method area of Java memory space and both heap and method area is shared between different thread.
2) Garbage collection is a mechanism provided by Java Virtual Machine to reclaim 
heap space from objects which are eligible for Garbage collection.
3) Garbage collection relieves java programmer from memory management which is essential part of C++ programming and gives more time to focus on business logic.
4) Garbage Collection in Java is carried by a daemon thread called Garbage Collector.
5) Before removing an object from memory Garbage collection thread invokes finalize () method of that object and gives an opportunity to perform any sort of cleanup required.
6) You as Java programmer can not force Garbage collection in Java; it will only trigger if JVM thinks it needs a garbage collection based on 
Java heap size.
7) There are methods like System.gc () and Runtime.gc () which is used to send request of Garbage collection to JVM but it’s not guaranteed that garbage collection will happen.
8) If there is no memory space for creating new object in Heap Java Virtual Machine throws OutOfMemoryError or 
java.lang.OutOfMemoryError heap space
Explain garbage collection?
Or
How you can force the 
garbage collection?
Or
What is the purpose of garbage collection in Java, and when is it used?
Or
What is Garbage Collection and how to call it explicitly?
Or
Explain Garbage collection mechanism in Java?

Garbage collection is one of the most important features of Java. The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard objects that are no longer needed by a program so that their resources can be reclaimed and reused. A Java object is subject to garbage collection when it becomes unreachable to the program in which it is used. Garbage collection is also called automatic memory management as JVM automatically removes the unused variables/objects (value is null) from the memory. Every class inherits finalize() method from java.lang.Object, the finalize() method is called by garbage collector when it determines no more references to the object exists. In Java, it is good idea to explicitly assign null into a variable when no more in use. In Java on calling System.gc() and Runtime.gc(), JVM tries to recycle the unused objects, but there is no guarantee when all the objects will garbage collected. Garbage collection is an automatic process and can’t be forced. There is no guarantee that Garbage collection will start immediately upon request of System.gc().

What kind of thread is the Garbage collector thread?It is a daemon thread.
Can an object’s finalize() method be invoked while it is reachable?An object’s finalize() method cannot be invoked by the garbage collector while the object is still reachable. However, an object’s finalize() method may be invoked by other objects.
Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of memory?
Garbage collection does not guarantee that a program will not run out of memory. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection.

What is the purpose of finalization?
The purpose of finalization is to give an unreachable object the opportunity to perform any cleanup, before the object gets garbage collected. For example, closing an opened database Connection.
If an object is garbage collected, can it become reachable again?
Once an object is garbage collected, It can no longer become reachable again
                                                                            OOPS
What is an abstract class?
Abstract classes are classes that contain one or more abstract methods. An abstract method is a method that is declared, but contains no implementation.
Note:
*       If even a single method is abstract, the whole class must be declared abstract.
*       Abstract classes may not be instantiated, and require subclasses to provide implementations for the abstract methods.
*       You can’t mark a class as both abstract and final.
What is an Interface?
An interface is a description of a set of methods that conforming implementing classes must have.
Note:
*       You can’t mark an interface as final.
*       Interface variables must be static.
*       An Interface cannot extend anything but another interfaces.
What are the differences between Interface and Abstract class?
Abstract Class
Interfaces
An abstract class can provide complete, default code and/or just the details that have to be overridden.
An interface cannot provide any code at all,just the signature.
In case of abstract class, a class may extend only one abstract class.
A Class may implement several interfaces.
An abstract class can have non-abstract methods.
All methods of an Interface are abstract.
An abstract class can have instance variables.
An Interface cannot have instance variables.
An abstract class can have any visibility: public, private, protected.
An Interface visibility must be public (or) none.
If we add a new method to an abstract class then we have the option of providing default implementation and therefore all the existing code might work properly.
If we add a new method to an Interface then we have to track down all the implementations of the interface and define implementation for the new method.
An abstract class can contain constructors .
An Interface cannot contain constructors .
Abstract classes are fast.
Interfaces are slow as it requires extra indirection to find corresponding method in the actual class.

When should I use abstract classes and when should I use interfaces?
Use Interfaces when…
*       You see that something in your design will change frequently.
*       If various implementations only share method signatures then it is better to use Interfaces.
*       you need some classes to use some methods which you don't want to be included in the class, then you go for the interface, which makes it easy to just implement and make use of the methods defined in the interface.
Use Abstract Class when…
*       If various implementations are of the same kind and use common behavior or status then abstract class is better to use.
*       When you want to provide a generalized form of abstraction and leave the implementation task with the inheriting subclass.
*       Abstract classes are an excellent way to create planned inheritance hierarchies. They're also a good choice for nonleaf classes in class hierarchies.
Feature
Interface
Abstract class
Multiple inheritance
class may inherit several interfaces.
class may inherit only one abstract class.
Default implementation
An interface cannot provide any code, just the signature.
An abstract class can provide complete, default code and/or just the details that have to be overridden.
Access Modfiers
An interface cannot have access modifiers for the subs, functions, properties etc everything is assumed as public
An abstract class can contain access modifiers for the subs, functions, properties
Homogeneity
If various implementations only share method signatures then it is better to use Interfaces.
If various implementations are of the same kind and use common behaviour or status then abstractclass is better to use.
Speed
Requires more time to find the actual method in the corresponding classes.
Fast
Adding functionality (Versioning)
If we add a new method to an Interface then we have to track down all the implementations of theinterface and define implementation for the new method.
If we add a new method to an abstract class then we have the option of providing default implementation and therefore all the existing code might work properly.
Fields and Constants
No fields can be defined in interfaces
An abstract class can have fields and constants defined

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